Boil On Pelvis

Dear patient, in the following we would like to give you some information about the clinical picture of infection of the spine and its treatment. Due to the high degree of specialization of the Clinic for Spinal Surgery at the Bad Bramstedt Clinic, patients are treated or consulted supraregionally in Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg, Lower Saxony and Bremen, as well as from other German states. Careful examination and questioning are the central components of being able to advise patients individually in our consultation hours.


While wear-related back pain is common, purulent (bacterial) inflammation of the spine and intervertebral discs are among the more rare causes of back pain. Spondylodiscitis is an inflammation that affects the base and top plates of the vertebrae, as well as the associated intervertebral disc, and often originates from spondylitis (inflammation of the vertebral body). It occurs at a rate of 1:250,000 in the population, with most patients over the age of 50. The male sex is affected about twice as often as the female. Diabetics, patients with reduced immune defenses, or patients after medical procedures such as injections, spinal surgery, endoscopic procedures, or oral pharyngeal treatments are considered a risk group. Bacteria that are the cause of purulent lung or urinary tract infections, for example, can also colonize the spine as a result of germ transmission from the primary focus of inflammation via the blood or lymphatic channels. Operations on the spine or other organs and injection treatments can also lead to such infections. This then leads to abscesses and fusion of the vertebrae and intervertebral disc. Furthermore, the infection can penetrate the spinal canal and lead to severe neurological complications with paralysis. Depending on its severity, purulent spinal inflammation may be a life-threatening disease.


Patients primarily report severe back pain on exertion, but especially pain at night. About half of patients have fever or elevated temperature and report night sweats. If nerve roots or the spinal cord are affected, there may be deficits (sensory disturbances, paralysis) in the upper and lower extremities. Less commonly, spondylodiscitis manifests with complete paraplegia, flank or hip pain.


Fig. 1 Infection of the 1st and 2nd lumbar vertebrae in tuberculosis In cases of prolonged back pain and the above-mentioned symptoms, laboratory diagnostics with determination of the inflammation values are among the first measures in addition to a careful physical examination. In the normal X-ray, an indication can only be found in the case of extensive bony destruction of the vertebrae. Nevertheless, these images are also necessary for clarifying other diseases and assessing spinal statics. The most sensitive method is currently magnetic resonance imaging of the spine (MRI, see Figure 1). Here, the infection and the adjacent soft tissues with spinal cord and musculature can be visualized very well. If a bacterial infection cannot be ruled out by the clinical diagnostic examination, a definite diagnosis can be made by taking a sample from the affected area. The tissue sample taken can then be examined for fine tissue under the microscope. Parts of the material are used to inoculate nutrient media on which any germs present can be cultivated.

Differential diagnosis

Degenerative changes of the spine, which also look similar to spondylodiscitis in magnetic resonance imaging, cause particular problems in differentiating between chronic bacterial inflammations. These findings can be differentiated by a special examination (PET). Ultimately proving the diagnosis is the collection of material, which allows a safe cultivation of the pathogens and a fine tissue examination for white blood cells in the tissue.

Aim of the therapy

The goal of treatment is to reliably identify the causative pathogen, i.e., type of bacterium or fungi causing the infection, a targeted antibiotic therapy, and, if necessary, surgical stabilization of the spine with clearing out of the focus of the infection and relief of the spinal cord and nerve roots. In this way, healing of the infection is achieved and the patient’s ability to bear weight is restored.

Conservative therapy

If the infection results in major destruction of the spinal column with instability, surgery is usually indicated. Larger accumulations of pus (abscesses) in the spinal canal (spinal canal) or the surrounding muscles (psoas muscle, erector spinae muscle) also necessitate surgery. Absolute indications for surgery are blood poisoning (sepsis) and paralysis caused by pus accumulation in the spinal canal, as well as progression of the inflammation despite targeted drug therapy. The surgical procedure is determined by the existing findings and thus represents an individual therapy based on the appearance of the disease. Principles of treatment: The foci of pus in the spine are cleared out surgically. In most cases, surgery is performed from behind, to relieve the pus from the spinal canal and free the spinal cord or nerve root under an operating microscope. If necessary, the unstable spine is stabilized with screws and rods during the same operation. Removal of the pus from the disc space and the vertebral bodies can also be performed from behind “past the spinal cord”. Sometimes surgery is also necessary from the front through the neck, chest or abdomen to remove the infection from the surrounding tissues and replace the fused parts of the spine with bone (from the pelvis or fibula) or metal implants (so-called titanium vertebral body replacement). Keyhole procedures” (minimally invasive procedures, e.g., thoracoscopy, mini-ALIF, percutaneous stabilizations) can often be used here as well in order to optimally spare the unaffected tissue. The surgical procedures are followed by a consistent therapy with antibiotics for weeks. These therapies are initially given as intravenous therapy and can then be switched to therapy with tablets. Mobilization and follow-up treatment (AHB) are individualized, with early mobilization and AHB being the goal. Subsequently, close-meshed laboratory controls and radiological controls should be carried out in order to detect a relapse as early as possible.

Spontaneous course

If left untreated, i.e. without antibiotic therapy or surgery, about 70% of spinal infections are fatal. With spontaneous healing, there is a high degree of persistent back pain, paralysis, loss of sensation and so-called gibbus formation, i.e. a kinking of the spine due to the collapse of the destroyed parts of the spine.


Even with intensive treatment, healing of the infection cannot always be achieved, since bone infections are very persistent and many patients already show a significantly reduced general condition due to additional diseases. Furthermore, infections of the spine are often recognized late, which leads to the fact that the spine is partially already destroyed and the patients often already have a life-threatening blood poisoning due to the spread of the infection. In the majority of cases, however, the infection can be expected to heal and the spine to function well.

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Abscesses are encapsulated boils. Depending on their size and location, they can be harmless, painful or even life-threatening. More about symptoms, causes and treatment.


Pus blister, boil, collection of pus


An abscess is the term used by physicians to describe encapsulated collections of pus. Abscesses can occur anywhere in the body. They are usually the result of an infection. However, they also form when the body encases a foreign body as well as in response to injections or surgery. Ultimately, abscess formation is a protective function of the body. By surrounding pus accumulations with an impermeable layer of tissue, the germs they contain cannot spread into the organism. However, the protective effect is limited: If the covering of an abscess becomes permeable (perforated), the contents spill outward over the skin or into the interior of the body. Depending on the location of the abscess, this can have life-threatening consequences. If a pus blister bursts in the abdomen, for example, an acute abdomen quickly develops, which in turn can lead to blood poisoning. Infections of the hair follicle are a special form of abscess. These accumulations of pus are called furuncles or carbuncles.


The symptoms of abscesses depend on the location and size of the pustule. Some abscesses inside the body often go unnoticed for a long time. For example, they do not cause pain until they become very large and put pressure on nearby nerves or organs. Most pus blisters, however, develop close to the surface. These abscesses are often initially noticeable by a barely perceptible foreign body sensation. But soon pain sets in, which increases especially when pressure is applied to the abscess. Redness and swelling are other visible symptoms of near-surface abscesses. Such abscesses form particularly frequently in the intimate region, on the anus or buttocks, as well as in the armpits, the bends of the joints and on the thighs. Large and deep abscesses often cause flu-like symptoms with fatigue, fever, and aching limbs or headache. The pain of liver abscesses, for example, sometimes radiates to the shoulder or pelvis and back.


Near-surface abscesses are almost always caused by bacteria. As a rule, the germs enter deeper layers of the skin through the smallest skin lesions. There they multiply and trigger an inflammatory process. This inflammation is fought by the immune system. Pus can form as a waste product of this fight. The more severe the inflammation, the greater the accumulation of pus can become. In the case of a syringe abscess, the bacteria enter the body from the skin surface with the cannula. Tip abscesses occur primarily when the injection site is not carefully disinfected or infected injection equipment is used (especially common in drug addicts). However, there are also rare causes of abscesses. For example, parasites can enter the body with food, spread, and cause infections. Non-bacterial causes of abscesses include Crohn’s disease and tuberculosis. In Crohn’s disease, abscesses form primarily in the intestines; in tuberculosis, they form in the lungs. Nonbacterial abscesses are also called cold abscesses.


Treatment of abscesses always belongs in the hands of trained personnel. This may be nurses or doctors. Under no circumstances should you express abscesses yourself or even cut them open. Even in the case of superficial abscesses, there is a considerable risk of bacteria getting deeper into the organism. This can have serious consequences, including life-threatening blood poisoning (sepsis). The only way to completely remove larger abscesses is through surgery. The severity of this procedure depends on the location and size of the abscess. Abscesses close to the surface can often be taken care of during an outpatient procedure in the doctor’s office, under local anesthesia if necessary. Deeply located or fused abscesses, on the other hand, often require inpatient hospital treatment with surgery under general anesthesia. In many cases, surgical treatment is followed by drug therapy with antibiotics such as flucloxacillin, cefalexin, clindamycin or tetracycline. This antibiosis is intended to ensure that any bacteria that are not removed cause a new infection with abscess formation. Author: Charly Kahle Status: 18.05.2022

Abscesses, coccygeal fistula: Targeted therapy necessary

Fortunately, the problems discussed here are by no means commonplace. All the more the advice applies to go quickly (again) to the doctor in case of (unusual) complaints and pain, especially after a treatment measure such as an injection into the buttocks or in case of a chronic underlying disease, even an immune disorder.

Rare: Pelvic abscess

A so-called pelvic abscess is a rare event. It can originate, for example, from a purulent infection in the spine – in the area of the vertebrae and/or intervertebral discs – per se a severe clinical picture. In addition, an abscess in the pelvis can arise as a complication of infections of internal organs, for example in the context of a chronic inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn’s disease (Morbus Crohn). In this case, bacteria can penetrate a damaged section of the intestinal wall. The resulting pus accumulates between the intestinal loops. Along the nearby iliopsoas or piriformis muscle, both internal hip muscles, it finds its way and, as it progresses, can enter the buttocks or the thigh via the groin in extreme cases. In Crohn’s disease, this tends to occur on the right side because the disease often involves the terminal portion of the small intestine located here. Other possible sources include a purulent appendicitis, a rupture of the intestine due to diverticular disease (diverticulitis) in the lower colon (sigmoid colon), for example, or a purulent inflammation of the renal pelvis. In immunodeficiency, for example, an abscess can also develop via germs spreading in the blood. Symptoms: As such, a pelvic abscess may initially be symptomless because it develops encapsulated in the posterior vault between the spine and peritoneum. This is especially true of a tuberculous abscess. However, there may also be marked abdominal or flank pain. Ultimately, it depends on the starting point, location and possible complications of the suppurative focus which symptoms occur. If the source is in the spine, the symptoms will initially focus on this area of the body, for example with severe pain in the small of the back. The pain may also radiate to the abdomen, buttocks or hips. If vertebrae are affected, this can have serious consequences: In addition to severe pain, there is a risk of deformation and instability of the spine with effects on the spinal cord. Irritation of the root of the sciatic nerve at the vertebral canal with neurological symptoms is also possible. Fever, chills, and a marked feeling of illness are common. For an inflammation of the intestine as a possible underlying disease, symptoms such as cramp-like abdominal pain, diarrhea (also bloody) or constipation are also typical. For an acute inflammation of the renal pelvis, apart from high fever, chills and pain in the area of the flank or in the back, pain when urinating, possibly also bloody urine, speak. Diagnosis: The medical history may indicate, for example, an existing illness or previous surgery. On physical examination, the spine may be extremely sensitive to touch and painful when tapped, limiting examination. There may also be a bulge and swelling on the spine. If the patient has had back surgery, the doctor will pay attention to this anyway. Imaging procedures such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging or computer tomography, also with the administration of contrast media, can confirm the diagnosis. This can also identify the presumed point of origin or the area of spread of the abscess. The pathogen is detected in samples taken from the abscess. The blood can also be tested for the pathogen. It also usually reveals clear signs of inflammation. Therapy: An acute abscess is usually drained (relieved) or surgically evacuated and the patient is additionally treated with antibiotics, in the second step according to pathogen testing. The underlying disease is treated in accordance with the applicable standards. Suppurated, damaged bowel sections, for example, usually have to be removed. At the spine, special surgical measures may follow after clearing out a pus cavity for local antibiotic treatment and for static stabilization.

Unusual: syringe abscess

In the gluteal muscle, an abscess is possible due to injury, penetrated foreign bodies or an injection (intramuscular injection). This can result in a bruise, which becomes infected in the second stage, or pus pathogens have migrated via contaminated instruments. Today, in the age of disposable needles and syringes, this hardly ever happens. However, even with proper injection, a minimal residual risk cannot be ruled out. It also depends on the type of drug injected. For example, some preparations, even if they are declared for injection into the muscle, indicate the possibility of purulent ulcers. Particularly at risk are people with diabetes, patients with reduced immune defenses and those who require more frequent injection treatment, as well as drug addicts. Because of potentially threatening consequences such as blood poisoning, the attending physician must be consulted immediately at the slightest suspicion of a syringe abscess. Symptoms: In the case of a syringe abscess, there is pain in the buttocks, which sometimes cannot be explained exactly at first because the abscess finds enough niches in the depth of the muscles. Only after a few days, swelling and redness may become visible on the skin. Possible accompanying symptoms are restrictions in walking due to the painful swelling, also fever, chills and feeling sick. In superficial abscesses, externally visible signs such as swelling, redness, hyperthermia and increased sensitivity to touch occur relatively quickly. Diagnosis: An abscess in the gluteus maximus muscle can be detected externally or, if suspected, by ultrasound examination. The fact of previous injection treatment is usually known. Therapy: Not every painful swelling after an intramuscular injection is synonymous with an abscess. For example, a minor hematoma may have occurred. Associated discomfort may subside after a few days with the help of local treatment (cooling compresses, ice compresses). It is crucial that the attending physician has the opportunity to monitor the findings closely. In the case of an emerging or proven abscess, rapid surgical opening of the abscess capsule and therapy with antibiotics are necessary. The pus is drained and the wound is allowed to heal. If necessary, plastic surgery is also indicated to cover any defect that has developed.

Stubborn: coccygeal fistula (pilonialsinus).

The gluteal fold is one of the body sites, consequently the most important, where pilonidal sinus can form, in this case so-called coccygeal fistulas. These are chronic inflammations of the fatty tissue under the skin, probably originating from hair follicles. On the one hand, it is assumed that a cornification disorder occurs in the hair follicle, which closes, becomes infected and inflamed. On the other hand, broken hairs are supposed to grow inwards, taking skin germs and exfoliated horny skin (keratin) with them. In any case, a foreign body nodule (granuloma) develops around a small tissue cavity with contained broken hairs, in which pus can form. The resulting abscess makes its way in the soft subcutaneous tissue to the coccyx above the gluteal fold – the connective tissue of the gluteal muscles sets certain limits – and to the outside. Thus, a widely branched duct or fistula system may form, opening here and there with visible pores in the skin. Fistulas are sometimes a stopgap measure of the body to relieve a focus of pus. The clinical picture affects men twice as often as women, main age group: 20 to 30 years. Strong hairiness, perspiration, insufficient hygiene, predominant sitting posture, overweight, weakened immune system have a favorable effect. Inflammation and pus foci of the skin should always be examined by a dermatologist, as they can be an expression of various clinical pictures. The treatment of a pilonidal sinus, which causes acute or chronic complaints, is the responsibility of the surgeon or coloproctologist (specialist for rectal diseases). Abscesses or fistulas originating from the anal canal must be differentiated. This occurs more frequently in Crohn’s disease, for example. Symptoms (coccygeal fistula): The inflamed pilonidal sinus is visible externally as a pimple or larger reddened and swollen structure, possibly with a pus spot. The area can be extremely painful, sitting impossible, lying down or walking often difficult. Usually the affected person feels ill, may have fever, occasionally chills. Irritable fistula openings are sometimes so small that they are sometimes not even noticed. In the chronic stage, symptoms are variable, often discharging secretions and blood, which may also come from pores next to the buttock crease. There is usually no pain, but there may be a slight burning sensation or itching, especially when sitting. Some sufferers are free of symptoms for longer periods (remission). However, spontaneous self-healing is not to be expected. The treating physician will check the findings regularly, even after an intervention. Diagnosis: It results from the findings and the course of the disease. Pressure on the area surrounding the pilonidal sinus during clinical examination will cause inflammatory secretion to escape from the pore(s). Therapy: An acute abscess is first split usually under local anesthesia, the pus drains and the inflammation can subside. This also causes the pain to subside. In the second step, the fistula system together with the abscess cavity is addressed. Fistulas should also be treated if they cause chronic discomfort. There are numerous surgical procedures – minimally invasive techniques for smaller foci of disease, including laser and endoscope, and conventional incision techniques (excision procedures) with open or closed wound healing and different positioning of the incision. Everything has advantages and disadvantages, about which the treating physicians must provide information. The quality of life restored more quickly after surgery, for example, is in conflict with the frequency of recurrence and the need for repeat surgery. The duration of wound healing also plays a role. Good hygiene, abstinence from alcohol and smoking after surgery are important prerequisites for recovery and a favorable course. Whether regular shaving for about a year after the operation really brings benefits is currently not proven. Pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID) are Inflammatory processesthat occur in the the upper part of the female genital tract, such as such as the fallopian tubes, ovaries and uterus. In addition, they can also affect other areas such as ligaments. This type of disease often occurs in women between the ages of 15 and 39 and can be dangerous if not controlled in time. Therefore, untreated pelvic inflammatory disease can cause damage to the female reproductive organs and lead to a variety of problems. Below you will find a table of contents with all the points we cover in this article. Table of Contents

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Types of diseases

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to various inflammatory and infectious processes that occur in the upper female genital tract genital tract. Depending on the affected area, PID includes several pathologies, which we describe in the next paragraph.


Endometritis is considered PID and consists of an inflammatory process or irritation of the Endometrium. May be accompanied by other pelvic infections. The pathogens that cause this condition may be Chlamydia, gonorrhea, tuberculosis or a combination of normal vaginal bacteria. Among the most important symptoms of endometritis include:

  • Abdominal swelling.
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding.
  • Constipation.
  • Pain in the uterus.

The condition usually disappears after taking antibiotics. It is also recommended to take it easy for a while.


Oophoritis, also Ovaritis is an inflammation of one or both ovaries. It usually appears between the ages of 25 and 35; some risk factors Are cancer, sexually transmitted infections, miscarriages, etc. In case of inflammation of the ovaries, various symptoms appear, the intensity of which varies depending on the case. This type of PID is caused by infection with. streptococci, staphylococci, E. coli and gonococci. caused by


This is an infection of the uterine muscles that usually appears secondary to endometritis. It is also known as Metritis known as metritis. Myometritis is usually associated with infection with the bacterium Arcanobacterium pyogenes is associated. In addition, this infection may occur in combination with other pathogenic microorganisms such as. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Bacteroides spp. and Escherichia coli may occur.


Parametritis is considered a pelvic inflammatory disease because it results in inflammation of the parametrium parametrium. The parametrium is the set of structures that connect the uterus to the pelvis. It consists of connective tissue and smooth muscles located in the wide ligament of the uterus. This disease usually manifests after complicated miscarriages, childbirths, gynecological surgeries or uterine diseases. It causes various symptoms such as fever, abdominal pain or urinary problems.


Salpingitis is one of the most common infectious diseases of female genitalia. It consists of inflammation of the fallopian tubes, which leads to sterility due to tubal changes and increases the likelihood of ectopic pregnancy. The most common cause of inflammation of the fallopian tubes is a sexually transmitted infection in the genital area.


PID is often caused by the invasion of bacteria that rise from the vagina and cervix to colonize other upper regions of the female genital tract. Various physical changes occur in the internal organs and excretion occurs, which affects the mucous membrane. It is a pathology that can become chronic if not treated appropriately. The following causes of PID should be highlighted:

  • Younger than 25 years and sexual intercourse with changing partners.
  • Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It is the most common cause and can occur with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Mycoplasma hominis . It is therefore referred to as a polymicrobial infection referred to as a polymicrobial infection.
  • Changes in the vaginal flora: Changes in the vaginal flora caused by aerobic or anaerobic pathogens, but also by the excessive use of vaginal douches, which damage the flora.
  • The use of Intrauterine devices, as they contain Actinomycetes favor. The longer the intrauterine device is used, the greater the risk of infection by this bacterium.
  • Uterine biopsy, a procedure to obtain a small sample of tissue surrounding the uterus.
  • Voluntary termination of pregnancy or spontaneous abortion.
  • Birth.
  • Other infections, such as those caused by. Mycobacterium tuberculosis associated with salpingitis, viruses, etc.

In addition, 20% of PID patients do not show bacterial growth. This percentage corresponds to older women with subacute or chronic pelvic pain.

Symptoms and signs

The way PID can manifest itself varies widely. It can auto asymptomatic or even cause serious changes. Therefore, some of the most common symptomspatients with this disease suffer from are the following:

  • Abdominal pain. It is the most common symptom in 95% of cases and usually occurs in the lower part, in the hypogastrium.
  • A change in the vaginal discharge, which causes an unpleasant color, consistency or odor.
  • Abnormal bleeding After sexual intercourse, bleeding between periods, etc.
  • Urinary disorders Such as pain when urinating or constant urge to urinate.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Other symptoms such as loss of appetite, fatigue, chills, etc.

On the other hand, the Signs, which define pelvic inflammatory disease and can be noticed by the doctor:

  • Pain when moving the cervix.
  • Excessive vaginal discharge or Leucorrhea.
  • Fever.
  • Abscesses in the fallopian tubes.
  • Peritonitis or peritonitis.

The peritoneum is a connective tissue membrane that surrounds the abdominal cavity. It provides mobility for the organs located in the abdominal cavity, protects them from microorganisms, and acts as a thermal insulator.


The diagnosis of PID is imprecise. There is no single test to diagnose PID, but a basic clinical diagnosis is made, supplemented by various laboratory tests and other specialized studies. The most common tests used to diagnose PID are:

  • Pelvic examination For signs of possible pelvic inflammatory disease.
  • Blood work From a blood test that, if PID is present, shows an elevated leukocyte level.
  • Pelvic ultrasound, to look for other possible causes of symptoms such as pregnancy or even appendicitis. We also look for inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ovaries.
  • Cell culture To confirm the presence of harmful microorganisms on the cervix.
  • Laparoscopy. This is the diagnostic test par excellence, although it has some limitations. It is very useful, but the risks and the cost of its implementation must be taken into account.
  • Endometrial biopsy, which shows plasma cells present and indicates PID.

If you are want to get pregnant after PID want to become pregnant, ultrasound and laparoscopy can help you find out if your fallopian tubes are blocked. A test will be done to see if in vitro fertilization (IVF) is needed, or if the fallopian tubes need to be unblocked with surgery.


Depending on the diagnosis, which is based on clinical features, PGD can be classified into three different grades:

Grade 1
When the disease is not in a complicated phase and there are no signs of irritation and inflammation of the peritoneum.
Grade 2
the disease is already complicated and there are abscesses in the ovaries and/or fallopian tubes. In addition, there is inflammation in the peritoneum.
Grade 3
Spread of infection to other structures outside the pelvis producing a systemic response.


The longer the start of PID treatment is delayed, the more injuries it can cause and the greater the likelihood of complications. With this type of condition, it is critical to see a specialist and get a good diagnosis that will allow determining the most appropriate treatment. The Goals of treatment for PID are:

  • Eliminate infection.
  • Relieve symptoms.
  • Avoid complications.

Treatment of milder PID begins with a course of antibiotics. If poorly tolerated or unsuccessful, intravenous treatment is given in the hospital. In more severe cases of PID, surgery is performed, although this is not usually done.

Antimicrobial therapy

This type of outpatient treatment is indicated when uncomplicated or mild PID (grade I) is suspected. It consists of administration of various antibiotics such as amoxicillin, cefotetan, quinolones, cephalosporin, and doxycycline. The use of antibiotics eliminates the infection that causes inflammation in the upper part of the female reproductive system. In addition to administering these medications, it is advisable to follow prophylactic measures such as sexual hygiene measures or the use of condoms during sexual intercourse.


If treatment cannot be initiated, it fails, or there is poor tolerance to outpatient antibiotic treatment, the patient must be hospitalized. She will be given a series of intravenous antibiotics as well as antipyretics for fever and analgesics. If she is using an intrauterine device, her doctor will remove it after she begins antibiotic treatment. Other cases of PID that also require hospitalization are shown below:

  • In pregnant women.
  • In women who have 2nd or 3rd degree PID.
  • In cases of uncertain diagnosis between PID, ectopic pregnancy or appendicitis.
  • History of uterine disorders.


Surgical treatment is indicated only when all previous medical treatments have failed or severe complications occur. It is very rare for women with PID to need surgery. However, if there is a risk that an abscess will rupture, her doctor will perform a Drainage performed. A small needle is inserted through an incision in the skin and performed under ultrasound guidance.

Complications of PGD

The timing of treatment for a PGD is critical to avoid consequences. However, there are a number of complications that can put the health of people suffering from PID at risk:

  • Chronic pelvic pain.
  • Infertility is one of the main effects. Causes difficulty getting pregnant or problems during pregnancy.
  • Ectopic pregnancy: A change in the physiology of the fallopian tubes can interfere with the embryo’s path to the uterus and cause it to implant in an inappropriate place.
  • Recurrent infections.
  • Increased Premature births And complications in newborns.
  • Others such as Reiter’s syndrome, reactive arthritis, etc.

The worst case that could happen with these diseases would be death-although this usually does not occur. Before it even happens, antibiotics are administered long before that.


The measures taken to prevent PID are similar to those taken to prevent STDs. These measures are intended to prevent infections and their spread, as well as the possible consequences. However, it should be noted that this disease is not always caused by a sexually transmitted infection. The primary prevention aims to promote safe sexual intercourse with the help of education. The use of barrier contraceptives (condoms), delaying the age at which sexual relations begin, reducing the number of partners, etc. should be encouraged so that there is no risk of STD transmission. Once PID is diagnosed in a woman, early treatment is given to prevent consequences and its spread. This is a secondary prevention. Vaginal douches on the other hand, kills bacteria normally found in the vagina and has the function of preventing vaginal infections. In addition, this practice ensures that bacteria can move to other areas of the female reproductive organs and cause infections. For these reasons, vaginal douching is not recommended.

Questions users asked

How is pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosed?

By Laura García de Miguel, MD (gynecologist). Pelvic inflammatory disease is a condition that is diagnosed by existing clinically relevant symptoms: Fever, pelvic pain and the finding of bacteria in the endometrium that cause this disease, such as gonococci or chlamydia The most sensitive diagnostic test is laparoscopy, but in the vast majority of cases the diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease is made without resorting to it. Blood tests are performed to determine the degree of infection, leukocytosis, and cultures with swabs to detect bacteria that can cause this disease.

Are pelvic inflammatory disease the same as salpingitis?

By Marta Barranquero Gómez (embryologist). Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a group of infections and inflammations that occur in the upper part of a woman’s genital area. Salpingitis is considered a type of chronic inflammatory disease because it is due to inflammation of the fallopian tubes.

Can you continue to have sexual intercourse with a PID diagnosis?

By Marta Barranquero Gómez (embryologist). Any sexual contact, even with a condom, should be avoided until the treatment is completed when there are no more signs of the diseases. This prevents re-infection.

Who is susceptible to PID?

By Marta Barranquero Gómez (embryologist). In a sense, every woman is susceptible to PGD. However, there are a number of risk factors that increase the likelihood. Sex with many people, sexually transmitted diseases, use of IUD for contraception, miscarriages, endometrial biopsies, etc. are some of these risk factors.

Recommended for you

If you want to learn more about the diseases that cause infertility in women, you can continue reading here: Diseases Causing Female Infertility. We have also discussed sexually transmitted diseases throughout this article. If you would like to learn more about them, click on the following link: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in men and women. Boil On Pelvis.

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